I come across many fantastic papers that change the way I think about the world. I’ve started posting them in an unsorted list here.
Generalized Theorems for Nonlinear Space Reconstruction

A paper by a theoretical biologist which beautifully presents systems biology as a mathematically palatable subject.

Comparison and Enumeration of Chemical Graphs

I’ve recently become interested in understanding chemistry, and decided to approach the topic by searching “basic chemistry for mathematicians.” I came across this article which covers the utilization of graph theory to explain chemical compounds and the computational complexities behind processing these chemical graphs efficiently. Akutsu and Nagamochi did a wonderful job making their article easily understandable.

Integrated Information Theory of Consciousness

Tononi presents a framework which provides a satisfying definition of consciousness. Tononi.pdf

Line Segment Detection

This article includes detailed information and functional source code (C) — a simple introduction to line segment detection. Abstract: LSD is a linear-time Line Segment Detector giving subpixel accurate results. It is designed to work on any digital image without parameter tuning. It controls its own number of false detections: On average, one false alarms is allowed per image. The method is based on Burns, Hanson, and Riseman’s method, and uses an a-contrario validation approach according to Desolneux, Moisan, and Morel’s theory.

Calculations for Structures Under Mechanical Load

A wonderful summary covering calculations for structures under static mechanical load and additionally addressing the added variables introduced by flexing elements (dynamic mechanical load). Not satisfied? Here is a mathematical introduction to such calculations and a general Mechanical Engineer’s Handbook. This book starts out from the very basics; feel free to skip around if you don’t want a review.